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2.3 Points of Reference for the Human Body

I will cover all the different points of reference to use when examining a pose to help translate the pose into a gesture.

2.3 Points of Reference for the Human Body

Hi, my name is Brian Lee and welcome back to Dynamic Gesture Job. In this lesson, we'll talk about how to quickly identify gesture but he's in the major visible landmarks of the body. These points are bony areas that show through the surface of the body. They're great one mark for us to use as always because they're usually placed in areas that are jointed, or in other words move based on the body's position, and action. Another great thing about these points, is that they don't change much, within different body types. The skeletal type between thin muscular, and overweight people stays pretty much the same a s far as bone placement goes. It's the muscle and fat tissue that shows the most dramatic changes. So now that we know what these points of reference are, let's see where they are a little bit more specifically. Center Line Of the front. So we talked about in previous lessons, the imaginary line from the tip of the head through the pelvis is a great way to indicate the line of action in most humans and animals. So let's talk about the landmarks outlets, identify this area a little bit more. The base of the neck between the clavicle and the bottom of the sternum, where the rib cage connects to the belly button and then to the pubicle. This line used determines the movement of the pose and it's a great line to start with when finding the gesture. Center Line Of the Back. And this superman out of a pose we can see that the center line of the back is much simpler to find. The length of the spine gives you the center and on the top of the neck down the table. But you can generally use a simple curve to express the shape of the pose. Remember that eventually when you're building onto the gesture drawing defining anatomy that the back bone is rarely such a simple curve. There are three sections of the spine to be aware of, the lower back the upper back, and the hip. Each area is designed to allow for different types of rotation and extension. Points of Reference Across the Body. There are certain points across the body that identify the the twisting and turning of the torso. The shoulders for instance. Both shoulders have a bone that extrudes beneath the skin. This is called the clavicle, it's located between the muscle groups deltoid and trapeze. These points help to tell you the angle of the shoulders. But remember the two clavicles a woman's shoulder can move independently from the rib cage like in this example give your shoulders a few shrugs and notice how the rib cage does not move much. Also notice that the clavicle bone on either side of the neck can move separately from the other. The point being that even if the shoulders are turned into one direction, it doesn't mean that the ribcage follows the same direction. Some other lateral points of reference to be aware of is the two lower points of the ribcage. And the two upper points of the hips also known as the iliac crest. The front corners of the iliac crest, these are the bones extruding around the belt line and are great when trying to find gesture across the hips. Lateral Reference Points Along the Back. In looking at the model from the back, there are several areas that are good to keep an eye on that can be found in most body types. The shoulder blades and scapulae are good reference points for determining angle across the shoulders. The tail bone area or sacrum helps you to define the center line of the back, and when used in conjunction with the hips. Can give us a great visual aid when determining angle of the midsection of the body. The models clothes, just look for the belt line. And see in the male form it's really the same. In different body types you can really see these points very easily. So let's talk about some other points of reference I use. Another good point is the armpits. I use them with the clavicles to help lock down the angle of the shoulders and the upper part of the torso. The armpits axis of line are to judge the different relationships along the body. For example, the angle of the chin to each armpit with the width of the arms compared to the width between the armpits. You can even use the angle between the armpit and the ear to judge where the head is. All right, let's talk about the gesture of The Arm. When creating the gesture for The Arm I like to start at the shoulder. I create an action line from the shoulder to the wrist. I like to use a ball to express the landmark of the elbow and I know that, relative to the hip, the elbow usually sits right about, which again helps you place the ball of the elbow in the right place. I then look for the position of the wrist and the hand. I do the same hip to arm analysis as I used for the elbow, but this time notice its current relationship to top of the femur. Most humans carry the same relationships, give or take an inch or two. I like to make these types of references whenever possible a last minute nail down accurate gesture faster. The Leg. Moving on to The Leg gesture. The top of the femur where it connects to the hip is what I like to find first. This is where all the muscles from the glutes and the thigh connect and is usually very visible. However, visibility will obviously vary depending on the body type and clothing. But in general, this is a big rotational area of the midsection of the body and is an important one to get right. So whether you can see it or not just note that the general location and your gestures will benefit from it whenever determining the lower body's angle and position. And the need is complex but I find that the gesture works well using a box or a ball to work with. The curve of the bone between the knee and ankle. Tibia is an important shape to remember when nailing in the gesture helps to balance a figure and sets the stage for adding calf muscles down the road. I like to think of the angle as a boxer ball that makes up the access and turn the foot and the shin. The foot extends up from this and can rotate around as required. Finally, The Body. There are three major areas of The Body that are important to be aware of when determining the rotation and position. The head, the rib cage and the hips. The relationship between these three make up the core gesture of the body and are great points of reference to use in any pose. So enough of the different points of reference. Let's see how they're used in action. So there's a super dynamic yoga pose. She's gonna be a great example of how to use all these tools combined. First, we'll provide the line of action and the head and then we'll try to get the angles of the shoulders, the rib cage and the hips. Next we'll get the major structure of the body in three different pieces have the rib cage and hips. And then, we'll just start working out the different lines of action of the limbs. Just remember there is no set structure of how you need to use these tools. It's just a tool box. So, every pose is gonna be different and it's gonna call for different tools within your toolbox. You don't always have to use every single one. In some cases, you may not even use some of these these joints or some of these three major parts of the body again it all depends on pose itself. This one's particular has so much motion going on. Every part of the body is going in a different direction. That makes for a really cool gesture at this point we can leave and move on to the next model. Remember gesture is all about just capturing the movement, the emotion. The details can come later, you can have a whole sketchbook full of gestures and still be able to come back and do detail on them later using your imagination or memory. So again, for this one we're going to wrap up at least two major structures here. We're gonna get angle of the shoulders in because these are the major parts of this particular pose, it's what you see first. Get the joints in. Get the motion in. Elbow joins the hand just a quick little box in there for the hand. So that we can remember that he is doing something in this kind toward this. All right, and then we gonna get the hair in there as far as gesture goes. That's basically telling the whole story here, awesome. So here's a gnarly one. Full aerial here, can't tell if he's actually gonna make the jump, or if he's gonna face-plant it into the ground, but anyway, it's a cool pose. All right, so the first thing I see here is the face and the head. Kind of a tricky distortion of the body just because of the clothes. So I'm gonna do my best to kind of describe what's going on in the center line of the body. And then there's gonna be some overlapping elements of the three major sections of the body. So the head comes first and then behind the head is the rib cage and behind the rib cage is the hips. So this poses pretty tricky rather than over complicated. Let's just have a grip that looks like we're gonna do the ribcage as just one and we're not gonna worry too much about the hips and so not really visible. Notice I was just blocking out these major areas. The knees are really big as far as positional importance in this particular gesture. Gotta get the board in there and then it's all about the shoulders and the clothes. Put a few contour lines in there. Just so, we can be aware of the spatial relationships between the coiling and the negative space between. We're about to go into negative space next. As even another tool to make your gestures quick and accurate. Cool, I think we're getting pretty close to this one summarizes the post pretty well. Great, so let's move on. Homework, all right, it's homework for this exercise for this lesson, I want you to practice finding the major landmarks of the body just subjects from behind and also from the front. Clothed or unclothed, whatever you can get your hands on, whatever you can get into. You can get into a class, even better. As always I recommend drawing from life. So if you can find the class in your area, then usually have a lot of models to draw. Or if you have a partner, you may be able to ask them to pose for you which can be really fun for the both of you and make great date night. Otherwise, find some pictures online, and get to work. In the next lesson, we'll talk about how use silhouettes to find the most interesting poses to draw. And we'll learn how silhouette allows us to capture gesture in even the most complex forms. So thanks again for joining me and I'll see the next lesson. Happy drawing.

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